There are a few more rules you need to know before you are really ready to play a game of chess.
Castling is a special double move, with your King and one of your Rooks, that you are allowed to do once in every game.
The diagram shows the Kings and Rooks in their starting positions. The White King starts on e1 and the Black King on e8. The White Rooks start on a1 and h1 and the Black Rooks start on a8 and h8.
The left hand side of the board: the a, b, c and d files, is called the QUEEN-SIDE. The right hand side of the board: the e, f, g and h files, is called the KING-SIDE.
To castle you move your King two squares towards the Rook. Then, in the same move, the Rook jumps over the King to the next square.
You can castle on either side of the board as long as:
There is no piece of either colour between your King and your Rook.
Your King and Rook have not already moved.
You are not in check at the time (it doesn't matter if you've been in check earlier in the game as long as you didn't move your King in reply).
You are not moving into check.
Your King does not pass over a square which is attacked by an enemy piece.
If White castles King-side his King moves to g1 and his Rook moves to f1.
If White castles Queen-side his King moves to c1 and his Rook moves to d1.
If Black castles King-side his King moves to g8 and his Rook moves to f8.
If Black castles Queen-side his King moves to c8 and his Rook moves to d8.
Here you see the position when White has castled King-side and Black has castled Queen-side.
You see that Black's King is a bit nearer the centre than White's King.
Now look at the diagram on your right.
White CAN castle King-side: no problem.
White CANNOT castle Queen-side: he will be castling INTO CHECK. On c1 his King would be in check from the Black Queen.
Black CANNOT castle King-side: his King would cross the f8 square where he would be in check from the White Queen (this is called castling THROUGH CHECK).
Black CAN castle Queen-side. The Rook crosses the b8 square where it is attacked by the White Queen but this doesn't matter.
There is one more, rather complicated, rule to learn, which is a special PAWN MOVE. Everyone finds this rule rather difficult. If you don't understand it at first don't worry too much.
Take a look at the diagram on the right.
Suppose that in this position White decides to move his pawn on c2 forward two squares, reaching the position on your right.
There is a special rule that says "If a pawn moves two squares forward, from its second rank to its fourth rank, an opponent's pawn on its fifth rank on the next file may capture it as if it moved only one square".
As the White Pawn passes c3 the Black pawn can say "Stop there! I'm going to capture you right there!" So Black removes the White Pawn from c4 and puts his pawn on c3, giving the Diagram on your right.
This rule is called EN PASSANT, which is French for 'in passing'. Only pawns can capture or be captured en passant. You don't have to capture en passant if the opportunity arises. You may only capture en passant the move after your opponent has moved his pawn two squares forward.
While we're talking about rules, there are a few more rules which really apply to tournaments, but you might find it useful to know them now.
There are five ways you can DRAW a game. The rules are actually slightly more complicated than they look here, but this is all you'll need to know until you start playing in really serious tournaments.
1. STALEMATE, a position where the player to move is NOT in CHECK but cannot move anything, is a DRAW.
2. It is a DRAW if neither player has enough pieces left to force CHECKMATE. If you reach KING AGAINST KING, KING AND KNIGHT AGAINST KING, KING AND BISHOP AGAINST KING, KING AND KNIGHT AGAINST KING AND KNIGHT, KING AND KNIGHT AGAINST KING AND BISHOP, KING AND BISHOP AGAINST KING AND BISHOP, or KING AND TWO KNIGHTS AGAINST KING you can stop play and call it a draw.
3. If you reach the SAME POSITION THREE TIMES with the same player to move the game is a DRAW. This usually happens when both players keep on playing the same moves. (Teachers and parents: please note that the rule is a draw by REPETITION OF POSITION, NOT REPETITION OF MOVES. Also, it is NOT a draw if JUST ONE PLAYER plays the same move three times.)
4. If the players play FIFTY MOVES EACH WITHOUT A PAWN MOVE OR CAPTURE the game is a DRAW. This usually happens at the end of the game when one player is trying to force checkmate with King and Queen against King or King and Rook against King. (Teachers and parents: please note that it is 50 moves, not 25 moves, you start counting again if a pawn move or capture takes place, and it can, in theory, occur any time in the game. It doesn't automatically come into operation only when one player comes down to a bare King.)
5. The game is DRAWN at any time by agreement between the two players.
There are three ways you can WIN (or lose) a game.
1. By CHECKMATE
2. By RESIGNATION. At any point a player may RESIGN a game if he thinks his position is hopeless. (Don't resign in your games: you'll learn more by playing on and, you never know, your opponent might make a mistake.)
3. If you are using a CHESS CLOCK (which you may have to do in a tournament) one player wins if his opponent runs out of time. (If both players run out of time before anyone notices it is a DRAW, which, I guess, is a sixth way of drawing.)
I suppose you can also win if your opponent is disqualified for cheating, or does not turn up for the game.
If you are playing in a real tournament you will have to play to the TOUCH AND MOVE rule.
This states that IF YOU TOUCH A PIECE WITH THE INTENTION OF MOVING IT YOU HAVE TO MOVE IT.
And that IF YOU TOUCH AN OPPONENT'S PIECE WITH THE INTENTION OF TAKING IT YOU HAVE TO TAKE IT.
If you knock a piece accidentally it doesn't count as touching. If you deliberately touch an opponent's piece with the piece you are thinking about capturing it with, that DOES count as touching.
If one of your pieces is not in the middle of the square, you can adjust it on the square if you say "Adjust" (or j'adoube in French) BEFORE you touch it. You are NOT allowed to pick up a piece, change your mind about moving it, say "Adjust" and put it back!