CHAPTER 12:

ENDINGS WITH AN EXTRA PIECE

1. Playing for Zugzwang

When you have an extra Minor Piece - a Knight or Bishop - in the ending it sometimes seems difficult to win. In this lesson we first take a look at an important technique for winning these positions. You will see two positions from games in junior tournaments where the player with the extra piece failed to win.

XABCDEFGH
8-+-sN-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-+-+p+-zp&
5+-+-+k+-%
4-+-+-zP-zP$
3+-+-+-+-#
2-+-+-+-mK"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 176
White to move

In Diagram 176 White threw away the win by playing 1. h5? Kxf4 2. Nxe6+ Kg4 after which he was unable to win. Now have a look at how play should have gone.

1. Kg3

White must keep both his pawns for the time being.

1... h5

To keep the White King out of g4. If 1... e5 2. fxe5 Kxe5 3. Nf7+ (FORK!) winning the h-pawn when White can win by queening his last pawn.

2. Nf7 Ke4
3. Ng5+ Kf5
4. Kf3 (Diagram 177)

XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-+-+p+-+&
5+-+-+ksNp%
4-+-+-zP-zP$
3+-+-+K+-#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 177
Black to move

4... Kf6

If 4... e5 then 5. fxe5 Kxe5 6. Nh3 Kf5 7. Nf4 and Black can't defend his h-pawn.

So Black has to move his King back and allow White's King to advance.

5. Ke4 Ke7
6. Ke5

Winning the e-pawn after which the f-pawn will queen.

Now look at Diagram 178.

XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-zp-mk-zp-zp&
5zpLvl-zp-zp-%
4P+-+P+P+$
3+-+-vLP+P#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+K+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 178
White to move

White is ahead by a bishop for a pawn and has the chance to exchange Bishops on c5. In the game White didn't see how he could win if he exchanged Bishops so played Bc1. Although even after that move he should still win, the game ended in a draw. Here's how he could have won by exchanging Bishops.

1. Bxc5+ Kxc5
2. Ke2

White thought this position would be a draw because he can never attack any enemy pawns, which are all stuck on black squares, with his Bishop. But see what happens. First we bring in the King.

2... Kd4
3. Kd2

Now the Black King has to retreat.

3... Kc5
4. Kc3

Back again, Your Majesty.

4... Kd6

5. Kc4 Ke6 (Diagram 179)

XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-zp-+kzp-zp&
5zpL+-zp-zp-%
4P+K+P+P+$
3+-+-+P+P#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 179
White to move

Now the Black King can keep on moving between d6 and e6 to stop White from advancing. So White brings his Bishop round to d5.

6. Bc6 Kd6
7. Kb5 Kc7
8. Bd5 (Diagram 180)
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-mk-+-+-'
6-zp-+-zp-zp&
5zpK+Lzp-zp-%
4P+-+P+P+$
3+-+-+P+P#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 180
Black to move

The winning move. Now Black has to abandon the b-pawn.

8... Kd6
9. Kxb6 Kd7
10. Kxa5

White wins by queening his a-pawn.

In both these examples White was able to win by running his opponent out of moves. Black had no pawn moves that did not lose so he had to keep on retreating his King and allow the White King in.

Do you remember the funny word ZUGZWANG which you met when you were looking at pawn endings? Well, these positions were also ZUGZWANG. Black didn't want to move but he had to. Remember this idea in your games when you're a piece up.
2. The wrong Rook's Pawn

Diagram 181 shows an important position that ISN'T a win even though you have an extra piece.
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-mk(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-mKP%
4-+-+L+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 181
White to move

White has a Rook's Pawn and a Bishop which does not control the queening square. As long as Black keeps his King in the corner White cannot win. Try it out for yourself and see what happens. Then try moving the White Bishop to a black square. You should have no trouble winning for White from that position. If you remember that Rook's Pawn and Bishop of the wrong colour cannot win as long as your opponent's King can control the queening square, you will sometimes be able to salvage a half point from what looks like a lost cause. You'll be surprised how often it happens, so don't forget it.

Here's an example from a junior tournament which was mishandled by both players. We start from Diagram 182, where White is in check. Which way should he go?
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+p'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-vl-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2-+-+-mkPmK"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 182
White to move

The answer is, of course, to h1. The only way Black can win if White keeps his King in the corner is by forcing him to move his pawn so that Black can take it, converting his h-pawn into a g-pawn. But here it doesn't work: after 1. Kh1 h5 2. g4 hxg4 it's STALEMATE. Instead the game continued:

1. Kh3? Bg3
2. Kg4 Be5

2... Kxg2 is also a win for Black - after 3. Kh5 he plays Bf4, preserving his pawn, when White cannot get back to the corner.

3. Kh3 h6
4. g4 Bf6?

Black would win here with Bg3!, when White's only move, g5, allows hxg5. Play this line out for yourself to see what happens.

5. Kh2 Kf3
6. Kh3 Be5 (Diagram 183)

XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-+-+-+-zp&
5+-+-vl-+-%
4-+-+-+P+$
3+-+-+k+K#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 183
White to move

7. Kh4?

Converting a draw into a loss. There was a very simple way to share the point - g5! Now hxg5 is stalemate while h5 allows Kh4, winning the Pawn.

7... Bf4
8. Kh3 Kf2
9. Kh4

Instead of this White might have tried 9. g5, which is a fifty-fifty shot. Black could win with hxg5, but Bxg5 would only draw as White could get his King back to safety.

9... Kg2
10. Kh5 Kh3
11. Kg6 Kxg4

White resigns as he cannot stop the pawn from queening.

3. Queen against Pawn

You might think that if your extra piece is a Queen it will always be easy to win. But it's not the case if your opponent's pawn is on the seventh rank, about to queen. This type of position arises quite often when one player queens a pawn just before his opponent, so it's important to know what happens.

Set up Diagram 184 on your board and see whether you can win it before reading on. It's White to play.
XABCDEFGH
8-+Q+-+-+(
7+K+-+-+-'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2-+-+pmk-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 184
White to move
Here's the winning plan.

1. Bring your Queen as near as possible to the Black King by a series of checks, PINS and attacks on the Pawn.

2. When Black's King is forced in front of the Pawn move your King in.

3. When the Black King moves back out continue checking, PINNING or attacking the Pawn until the King is forced in front of the Pawn again.

4. Move your King in again and go back to Stage Three.

5. When your King is close enough win the Pawn and mate him.

Now look at how it works in practice.

1. Qf5+ Kg2
2. Qe4+ Kf2
3. Qf4+ Kg2
4. Qe3 Kf1
5. Qf3+ Ke1 (Diagram 185)
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+K+-+-+-'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+Q+-#
2-+-+p+-+"
1+-+-mk-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 185
White to move

End of Stage 1. Note White's zigzag manoeuvre with his Queen. Now Black's King is on e1 White can play a King move.

6. Kc6 Kd2
7. Qf2 (PIN!) Kd1
8. Qd4+ Kc2
9. Qe3 Kd1
10. Qd3+ Ke1

11. Kd5 Kf2 (Diagram 186)
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+K+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+Q+-+-#
2-+-+pmk-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 186
White to move

Now we repeat moves 7 to 10 on the other side of the board.

12. Qd2 (PIN!) Kf1
13. Qf4+ Kg2
14. Qe3 Kf1
15. Qf3+ Ke1
16. Ke4 Kd2
17. Qd3+ Ke1
18. Kf3 Kf1
19. Qxe2+ Kg1
20. Qg2#

Rather long-winded but not too difficult.

Now we'll move all the pieces one file to the right, giving Diagram 187, and try again. Play the position through yourself before reading on.

XABCDEFGH
8-+-wQ-+-+(
7+-mK-+-+-'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2-+-+-zpk+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 187
White to move

1. Qg5+ Kh2
2. Qf4+ Kg2
3. Qg4+ Kh2
4. Qf3 Kg1
5. Qg3+

So far the same as in the previous example. But now something interesting happens.

5... Kh1! (Diagram 188)

XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-mK-+-+-'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-wQ-#
2-+-+-zp-+"
1+-+-+-+k!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 188
White to move

And White suddenly realises that if he takes the Pawn it's STALEMATE! And Black is threatening to queen to White doesn't have time to move his King in. In fact the position's a draw as there's no way for White to make progress.

If the White King is not within reach of the Black Pawn on the seventh rank:

White WINS if the Black Pawn is on the b, d, e or g files.

White DRAWS if the Black Pawn is on the a, c, f or h files.

Now we'll move White's King to a more favourable position, Diagram 189, and wee what happens this time.

XABCDEFGH
8-+-wQ-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-mK-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2-+-+-zpk+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 189
White to move

1. Qg5+ Kh2
2. Qh5+ Kg2
3. Qg4+ Kh2
4. Qg3+ Kh1
5. Qh3+ Kg1
6. Kg3! f1=Q
7. Qh2#

Black can avoid immediate mate by playing 6... f1=N+ instead, but he'll still lose quickly: 7. Kf3 Nd2+ 8. Ke2 Ne4 9. Qg4+ (FORK!) picking up the Knight.

4. Rook against Pawns

If a pawn gets far enough up the board it can be just as strong as a knight, bishop or rook because your opponent will have to give up a piece to stop the pawn from queening. Sometimes two advanced pawns together can be too strong for a piece.

XABCDEFGH
8r+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-+-+-zP-+&
5+-+-+-zP-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-mk-+K+-#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 190
White to move

In Diagram 190 you see two pawns battling against a Rook. White can win here by pushing either pawn. For instance, 1. g6 Ra6 2. f7 (not 2. g7?? Rxf6+ and Black wins) 2... Rf6+ 3. Ke4 (not 3. Kg4? Rxg6+ 4. Kf5 Rg1 threatening a SKEWER and this time Black draws) 3... Rf1 4. g7 and White will end up with Queen against Rook. Or, if you prefer, 1. f7 Ra1 2. g6 (not 2. f8=Q?? Rf1+ (SKEWER!)) 2... Rg1 3. g7 (again not 3. f8=Q??) and Black can't stop both pawns. And, if you were wondering what happens with Queen against Rook, you'll learn in Chapter 15 that the Queen wins, but it's not always easy.

Finally in this chapter here are four positions, Diagrams 191, 192, 193 and 194, for you to play out against your training partner or computer. There are no examples this time as there is no really typical way to win. The method you choose will depend on how Black defends.

A few guidelines:

1. Make sure you don't run out of pawns.

2. Make sure you don't get left with Bishop and h-pawn. In Diagram 193 if Black keeps his King in the corner you MUST keep a pawn on the g-file in order to win.

3. Look for ways of sacrificing your piece to reach a winning King and Pawn ending. This is most likely to happen in Diagrams 193 and 194.

4. Look out for ZUGZWANG. Try to block his pawns so that his King has to retreat and let your King in.

5. In Diagrams 191 and 193, if your opponent puts his pawns on white squares, attack them with Bishop and King. If he puts them on black squares, put your King on a white square and play for ZUGZWANG.

6. In Diagrams 191 and 192 try to keep at least one pawn on each side of the board. Remember that endings with pawns on both sides of the board are easier to win.

XABCDEFGH
8-+-+k+-+(
7zppzp-+pzpp'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2PzP-+-+PzP"
1+-+-mKL+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 191
White to move
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+k+-+(
7zppzp-+pzpp'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2PzP-+-+PzP"
1+-+-mK-sN-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 192
White to move
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+k+-+(
7+-+-+pzpp'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2-+-+-+PzP"
1+-+-mKL+-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 193
White to move
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+k+-+(
7+-+-+pzpp'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2-+-+-+PzP"
1+-+-mK-sN-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 194
White to move
Try setting up other similar endgame positions and playing them out. If you learn how to play these endings well you'll really start to UNDERSTAND about the value of the pieces. You'll be able to prove to yourself, for instance, that, by and large, a bishop or a knight really is worth three pawns.

One final word of advice. Just because there are only a few pieces on the board in the ending it doesn't mean that you should play any faster than you do in the middle-game. What it does mean is that you can calculate further ahead because you and your opponent both have fewer moves to choose from.

QUIZ

1. Play Diagram 184 with White and Diagram 187 with Black against your teacher or training partner. Make sure you know how to win the first one and draw the second one.

2. Play Diagrams 191, 192, 193 and 194 with White against your teacher. If your teacher's a strong player he won't necessarily expect you to win each one, but you will need to show a good understanding of how to try to win them.

3. Test your understanding of this chapter by solving the mini-quiz. If you don't make 4 out of 5 re-read the chapter and have another go.

Q1.
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+K+(
7+-+-+P+-'
6-+-+-+q+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-mk-+-+-#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
White to move
What would you play?
Q2.
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+K+-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2p+-+-+Q+"
1+k+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
White to move
What would you play?
Q3.
ABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6P+k+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-vL-+-+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+-+K!
xabcdefgh
White to move
What would you play?
Q4.
XABCDEFGH
8-+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-mk-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4p+-+-vL-+$
3+PmK-+-+-#
2-+-+-+-+"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
White to move
What would you play?
Q5.
XABCDEFGH
8r+-+-+-+(
7+-+-+-+-'
6-+-+-zP-+&
5+-mK-+-zP-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-mk-+-+-#
2-+l+-+-tR"
1+-+-+-+-!
xabcdefgh
White to move
What would you play?

ACTIVITIES

It's time to learn another opening ready for the next chapter. This is something a bit different from the openings you've seen before. It's called the DANISH GAMBIT and it starts like this:

1. e4 e5
2. d4 exd4
3. c3 dxc3
4. Bc4 cxb2
5. Bxb2 (Diagram 195)
XABCDEFGH
8rsnlwqkvlntr(
7zppzpp+pzpp'
6-+-+-+-+&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-+L+P+-+$
3+-+-+-+-#
2PvL-+-zPPzP"
1tRN+QmK-sNR!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 195
Black to move

It's Black to play in this position. Would you rather play White or Black? Black has two extra pawns, but White has a strong attack, with both Bishops already menacingly posted on dangerous diagonals.

If you're White keep as many pieces on the board as you can. Whatever you do, don't exchange Queens while you're still two pawns down. Look out for EXPLOSIONS ON f7!

If you're Black, develop as quickly as you can, exchange pieces whenever you can without delaying your development and head for the ending.

Masters of the Universe 12

After retaining his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi, Anatoly Karpov had to defend his title against a younger challenger, the brilliant Garry Kasparov, in 1984.

Garry Kasparov was born in Baku, Azerbaijan, in 1963. Azerbaijan is in the South West of what was then the Soviet Union. When he was five he watched his parents trying to solve a chess problem. The next morning, although he had never been taught to play chess, he showed them the answer. When he was seven he joined the local Junior Chess Club where he was spotted as a potential champion.

At the age of ten he was invited, like Karpov before him, to join Botvinnik's Chess School. The best young players in the country met two or three times a year to have their games analysed by the ex-champion. They were also given homework to be done before the next meeting.

When Garry was twelve he became USSR Junior Champion for the first time. At 14 he won a Master Tournament, playing games like this.

White: Garry Kasparov Black: Sergei Begun
Minsk 1978
Opening: Queen's Gambit Declined

1. d4 d5
2. c4 e6
3. Nc3 Nf6
4. Nf3 c5
5. cxd5 Nxd5
6. e3 Nc6
7. Bd3 Be7
8. 0-0 0-0
9. Nxd5 Qxd5
10. e4 Qd8
11. dxc5 Bxc5
12. e5 (Diagram 196)

XABCDEFGH
8r+lwq-trk+(
7zpp+-+pzpp'
6-+n+p+-+&
5+-vl-zP-+-%
4-+-+-+-+$
3+-+L+N+-#
2PzP-+-zPPzP"
1tR-vLQ+RmK-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 196
Black to move

Threatening a sacrificial attack starting with Bxh7+, an idea you've seen before. Black replies by preventing the White Knight going to g5.

12... Be7
13. Qe2 Nb4?!

According to Kasparov, Nd4 to exchange Knights was better.

14. Bb1 Bd7
15. a3 Nd5
16. Qe4

Threatening mate and forcing Black to weaken his King's defences.

16... g6
17. Bh6 Re8
18. h4! Qb6
19. h5! f5?

A better defence for Black was Qxb2 but White still has a strong attack. This move plans to win the h-pawn but it turns out that he's underestimated Kasparov's attacking chances.

20. exf6

En passant!

20... Nxf6
21. Qe1! Nxh5
22. Ne5 Bb5 (Diagram 197)

XABCDEFGH
8r+-+r+k+(
7zpp+-vl-+p'
6-wq-+p+pvL&
5+l+-sN-+n%
4-+-+-+-+$
3zP-+-+-+-#
2-zP-+-zPP+"
1tRL+-wQRmK-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 197
White to move

Attacking the Rook on f1, but Garry's not bothered as he's seen a winning sacrifice. Can you find it?

23. Bxg6! Nf6

If he takes the Bishop he loses as follows: 23... hxg6 24. Qe4 Bf8 25. Qxg6+ Ng7 26. Ng4 threatening Nf6+ and Qh7#.

24. Bxh7+!

Black resigns. It's mate whichever way he takes the Bishop: 24... Kxh7 25. Qb1+ Kh8 26. Nf7+ Kg8 27. Qg6# or 24... Nxh7 25. Qe4 Nf8 26. Qg4+ Kh7 27. Qg7# And if he doesn't take the Bishop this move he'll have no choice next move: 24... Kh8 25. Nf7+ Kxh7 26. Qb1+.

At 16 Garry crushed a field of strong Grandmasters in a tournament in Yugoslavia, In 1984 he qualified to play Karpov for the World Championship.

The first match between Karpov and Kasparov was abandoned after 48 games! Karpov had won five games to Kasparov's three, with no less than 40 draws! In the replay in 1985 Kasparov won to become the youngest ever World Champion. According to the rules then in force Karpov was allowed a return match which took place, partly in London, in 1986, Kasparov winning again. Meanwhile, Karpov had won the next series of Candidates Matches to meet Kasparov for a fourth time. This time the match was drawn, but Kasparov retained his title. In 1990, Karpov was yet again the challenger, and Kasparov scored a narrow victory. In 1993 Kasparov retained his title against Nigel Short, of England, and in 1995 he beat Vishy Anand, of India.

This game comes from the second Kasparov-Karpov World Championship Match.

White: Garry Kasparov Black: Anatoly Karpov
Moscow 1985
Opening: Nimzo-Indian Defence

1. d4 Nf6
2. c4 e6
3. Nc3 Bb4
4. Nf3 0-0
5. Bg5 c5
6. e3 cxd4
7. exd4 h6
8. Bh4 d5
9. Rc1 dxc4
10. Bxc4 (Diagram 198)
XABCDEFGH
8rsnlwq-trk+(
7zpp+-+pzp-'
6-+-+psn-zp&
5+-+-+-+-%
4-vlLzP-+-vL$
3+-sN-+N+-#
2PzP-+-zPPzP"
1+-tRQmK-+R!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 198
Black to move

This sort of position arises very often in master chess. White has an ISOLATED QUEEN'S PAWN, one that cannot be defended by another pawn. This pawn might becore a weakness in the ending, but it gives White more space in the centre in the middle-game.

10... Nc6
11. 0-0 Be7
12. Re1 b6
13. a3 Bb7
14. Bg3 Rc8
15. Ba2 Bd6
16. d5

Kasparov decides to exchange off his isolated d-pawn, which leads to a rather drawish position, but one where White's pieces are slightly more active.

16... Nxd5
17. Nxd5 Bxg3
18. hxg3 exd5
19. Bxd5 Qf6
20. Qa4 Rfd8
21. Rcd1 Rd7

Karpov avoids Kasparov's trap: 21...Qxb2 22. Bxc6 Rxd1 23. Bxb7 when White ends up with Bishop and Knight against Rook.

22. Qg4 Rcd8? (Diagram 199)
XABCDEFGH
8-+-tr-+k+(
7zpl+r+pzp-'
6-zpn+-wq-zp&
5+-+L+-+-%
4-+-+-+Q+$
3zP-+-+NzP-#
2-zP-+-zPP+"
1+-+RtR-mK-!
xabcdefgh
Diagram 199
White to move

But now Karpov blunders badly, overlooking Kasparov's devastating reply. Have a go at finding it yourself before reading on.

23. Qxd7!! Rxd7
24. Re8+ Kh7
25. Be4+ (AMBUSH!)

Black resigns. Garry's QUEEN SACRIFICE leads either to a decisive material advantage or to mate after 25. Be4+ g6 26. Rxd7 Ba6 27. Bxc6 Qxc6 28. Rxf7#

LESSONS FROM CHAPTER 12

1. YOU CAN OFTEN WIN ENDINGS WHEN YOU'RE AHEAD ON MATERIAL BY RUNNING YOUR OPPONENT OUT OF MOVES, FORCING HIM TO GIVE WAY WITH HIS KING AND ALLOW YOUR KING INTO HIS POSITION.

2. BISHOP AND ROOK'S PAWN AGAINST KING IS A DRAW WHEN THE BISHOP IS ON THE WRONG COLOUR TO CONTROL THE QUEENING SQUARE AND THE DEFENDING KING IS IN THE CORNER.

3. A QUEEN BEATS A PAWN ON THE SEVENTH RANK SUPPORTED BY THE KING IF THE PAWN IS ON THE b, d, e OR g FILES, BUT ONLY DRAWS IF THE PAWN IS ON THE a, c, f OR h FILES UNLESS THE KING IS NEAR BY.

4. THE EASIEST WAY TO WIN AN ENDING A PIECE UP IS SOMETIMES TO SACRIFICE YOUR EXTRA PIECE TO REACH A WINNING PAWN ENDING.
3