1. Bh5-f3 (SKEWER!)

2. Ne3-d5 (FORK!)

3. Bb2xe5+, and if Ng6xe5, Rf5xf8 (DECOY!)

4. Ne2xd4 (AMBUSH!)

5. Bg3-e5 (PIN!)

6. Bg2xd5+, followed by Qc3xb4 (DESTROY!)

7. Qe2xb5, and if c6xb5, Rc1xc8 (EXPLOITING THE PIN!)

8. d4-d5 (FORK!)


10. Re1xe6, followed by Qg3xg7# if Black recaptures on e6 in any of four (!) ways (DESTROY!)

1. a) Bc1-g5 (PIN!) is best.

b) Nc3-d5 is not bad but Black is less likely to go wrong than after Bc1-g5.
c) 0-0 allows Black to get in his attack first with Bc8-g4 and Nc6-d4.
d) Nf3-g5 is a premature attack. Black can play 0-0 and the Knight will soon be forced to retreat.

2. b) Nc6-a5, to exchange off the Bishop on c4, is best.

a) Bc8-g4 is possible, but if Black copies White for too long he'll soon run into trouble.
c) 0-0 walks into White's attack: Nc3-d5.
d) Nf6-g4? loses the Queen.

3. c) Nc6-d4, to attack the PINNED Knight and smash up the pawns in front of White's King, is best.

a) Bg4xf3 is just an exchange.
b) 0-0 again lets White get in his attack first with Nc3-d5.
d) Nc6-a5 is reasonable but not as good as Nc6-d4.

4. d) Nf3-h4, heading for f5 to allow Qd1-g4 is best.

a) Qd1-d2 is not bad, but where's the Queen going next?
b) 0-0 is again not bad but rather slow.
c) Nf3-d2 is the right idea but the wrong direction.

5. a) Qd8-d7, trying to get to h3, is best.

b) Nd4xf3+ just loses the Knight.
c) 0-0 is again rather slow.
d) Nf6-h5? loses the Queen.

6. Qd1-h5+ (FORK!). This comes from 1. e2-e4 e7-e5 2. d2-d4 f7-f6? 3. d4xe5 f6xe5??.

7. Ne4xg3 (EXPLOITING THE PIN!) - if h2xg3, Qh4xh1.

8. Qd1-h5+ (FORK!)

9. Qd1-a4+ (FORK!)

10. Qd8-d4 (FORK!). If Ne5-d3, Qd4xf2#, or if Ne5-g4, Bc8xg4.

2. Kc2-c1 is the only move to draw.

2. Kc1-d1, drawing (not Kc1-b1, losing.)

3. Kc5-b6, going round the side. (Kc5-d5 and Kc5-b4 also win but take longer.) c3-c4 only draws after Kd7-c7 (OPPOSITION!)

4. Kb6-c6 (OPPOSITION!). Not c5-c6, when Black draws.

5. Kc8-b8! is the only move to draw. Let's look first at the alternatives.

1... Kc8-c7 2. Kc4-c5 (OPPOSITION!)
1... Kc8-b7 2. Kc4-b5 (OPPOSITION!)
1... Kc8-d7 2. Kc4-d5 (OPPOSITION!) or 2. Kc4-b5 (going round the side) both win.
1... Kc8-d8 2. Kc4-b5 (going round the side) wins.

After 1... Kc8-b8!, White can try...

2. Kc4-b5 Kb8-b7 (OPPOSITION!) draws.
2. Kc4-c5 Kb8-c7 (OPPOSITION!) draws.
2. Kc4-d5 Kb8-b7 (behind the pawn) draws.
2. b4-b5 Kb8-b7 (behind the pawn) draws.

In fact a draw was agreed after Kc8-b8 in Gligoric - Fischer (Candidates Tournament Belgrade 1959).

A hard one to make sure you really understand the ideas in this chapter.

1. Qh2xe5+ f6xe5 2. Rf1-f8+ Qg6-e8 3. Rf8xe8+ Rd2-d8 4. Re8xd8# - a BACK RANK MATE. Or 1... Kb8-a8 2. Rf1-a1+ Rd2-a2 3. Ra1xa2#, or 1... Kb8-c8 2. Qe5-c7#, or 1... Rd2-d6 2. Qe5xd6+ and mates as in the last two variations. (Alekhine - Reshevsky Kemeri 1937)

2. 1. Rd3-a3+ b4xa3 2. b2-b3# (Shablinsky - Ushkal USSR 1974)

3. 1. Rh1-h8+! Kg8-h8 (The Bishop's PINNED!) 2. Qg6-h7#. (Marshall - Burn Paris 1900, also Mentges - Gitzen 1933)

4. 1... Ra8xa3+! and if 2. Rb3xa3, Qc1-b2#, or if 2. b2xa3 or Ka2xa3, Qc1-a1#. (Grigoriev - Tanya Nadyseva (aged 14) USSR 1973)

5. 1... Qh3-g2+! 2. Rf2xg2 Nf4-h3# (Amateur - Blackburne Norwich about 1871)

6. 1... Qf7-f1+ 2. Be1-g1 Qf1-f3+! 3. Be4xf3 Bc6xf3#. Don't believe anyone who tells you it's not possible to mate with just a Bishop. You can do it with your eyes closed! (Amateur - Pillsbury Blindfold Simultaneous Display 1899)

7. 1... Rg8xg2+ 2. Kg1-h1 Rg2xh2+! 3. Kh1xh2 Qd8-h4+ 4. Kh2-g1 Qh4-g3+ 5. Kg1-h1 Qg3-g2#, or 3. Kh1-g1 Rh2-g2+ 4. Kg1-h1 Qd8-h4#. But 2... Qd8-h4 doesn't work - 3. Bc1xf4 Qh4xf4 4. Rf1-f3 (PIN!). You were warned that all the moves were checks! (Mayet - Hirschfeld Berlin 1861)

8. 1. Qh6xh7+! Kg8xh7 2. Re5-h5+! (EXPLOITING THE PIN!) 2... Kh7-g8 3. Rh5-h8# - a standard combination well worth remembering. (Spielmann - Hönlinger Vienna 1929)

9. 1. Qh5xh7+! Kg8xh7 2. Rf5-h5+ Kh7-g7 3. Bc1-h6+ Kg7-h7 4. Bh6-f8# (DISCOVERED CHECKMATE!). 3... Kg7-h8 makes no difference. Another standard Queen Sacrifice which has occurred many times. (Santasiere - Adams USA 1926)

10. 1. Rd1-d8+! (DECOY!) 1... Qc8xd8 2. Qe3-e6+ Kg8-h7 3. Rf6xh6+! (DECOY!) 3... g7xh6 4. Qe6-f7#. Or 1... Kg8-h7 2. Rf6xh6+! g7xh6 3. Qe3-e7+ Kh7-g6 4. h4-h5#. The first variation is an EPAULETTE MATE. This was the hardest question in the quiz. Well done if you got it right. (Steinitz - Amateur 1861)


1. d) e5xd4 is the only good move.

a) Bc5-b6 allows d4xe5 and if Nf6xe4, Qd1-d5 (FORK!)
b) Bc5-d6 hampers Black's development and leaves his Bishop and Knight in danger of being FORKED by a pawn on e5.
c) Bc5-e7 is answered in the same way as Bc5-b6.

2. b) Bc4-f7+ is correct, winning the piece back with a FORK by Qd1-b3+ after Ke8xf7.

a) 0-0 leaves White a pawn down for nothing.
c) Qd1-b3 at once, FORKING Knight and Pawn, wins the pawn back but gives Black fewer problems than Bc4xf7+.
d) Qd1-e2 also fails to win back the pawn.

3. a) Nb1xd2 is the move.

b) Qd1xd2 allows Nf6xe4, winning a pawn.
c) Kd1xd2 allows Nf6xe4+, winning a pawn as well as displacing the King.
d) Nf3xd2, apart from moving a piece twice for no reason, allows Nc6xd4 winning a pawn.

4. c) d7-d5 is the right answer, challenging White's domination of the centre.

a) Nc6-a5 leaves the Knight offside after Bc4-d3.
b) d7-d6 is not bad but White's strong centre pawns give him a slight advantage.
d) 0-0 allows White to start advancing his centre pawns.

5. a) 0-0, sacrificing a pawn for rapid development, should be played.

b) Bc4xf7+ doesn't quite work here: after 1... Ke8xf7 2. Qd1-b3+ the Bishop on b4 is defended.
c) Qd1-b3 is a good try which also just fails: 1... 0-0 2. d4-d5 Qd8-e7 (setting up an AMBUSH!) 3. 0-0 Nc6-a5 as the Queen defends the Bishop on b4.
d) Qd1-e2 doesn't give White enough for the pawn after d7-d5.

6. Rf1-e1 (PIN!), winning the Queen.

7. Ne5xc6+ (DISCOVERED CHECK!), again winning the Queen.

8. f2-f3, attacking and winning the PINNED Knight.

9. e4-e5 (FORK!), winning either Bishop or Knight.

10. d2-d4, winning a piece, for instance 1. d2-d4 e5xd4 2. c3xd4 Bc5-b6 3. d4-d5 (FORK!). Note that d2-d4 is itself a DOUBLE ATTACK, threatening both d4xc5 and d4-d5.

1. c) Kg6-f6 is the right idea, heading for the other side of the board to take the pawns off.

a) b2-b3? loses: Black takes the pawn and queens.
b) b2-b4? loses in the same way: Black takes en passant. (You didn't fall for that one, did you? Remembering the en passant rule can make the difference between winning and losing.)
d) Kg6-h6 leads to a draw: 1. Kg6-h6 b5-b4 2. a3xb4 (or 3. Kh6-g5 b4xa3 4. b2xa3 Kh8xh7 when Black gets back in time to draw) 2... a4-a3 3. b2xa3 stalemate.

2. b) b2-b3 is the easiest way to win, followed by a2-a3 and b3-b4 keeping his pawns together.

a) a2-a3 only draws, for instance 1. a2-a4 a5-a4! 2. b2-b4 a4xb3 (EN PASSANT!) 3. Kd4-c3 Kd6-c5 4. Kc3xb3 b6-b5 and White will be left with just a useless a-pawn.
c) Kd4-c3 is a win but White has to be clever: for instance 1... Kd6-c5 2. a2-a4 (to prevent b6-b5) 2... Kc5-c6 3. Kc3-d4 (b2-b4 only draws) 3... Kc6-d6 4. c4-c5+! b6xc5 5. Kd4-c4 Kd6-c6 6. b2-b3! (taking the OPPOSITION!).
d) a2-a4 again forces White to sacrifice a pawn to win: 1. a2-a4 Kd6-c6 2. c4-c5! and wins in similar fashion to the previous line.

3. d) Ke4-f5 is best, going round the side and preparing to gain the OPPOSITION.

a) c4-c5+ allows Black to gain the OPPOSITION with Kd6-e6.
b) d4-d5 is only a draw after Black exchanges pawns.
c) Ke4-d3 also wins but takes a couple of moves longer than Ke4-f5.

4. a) c5-c6 is the only way to win: Black cannot stop White from queening a pawn.

b) c5xb6 is a draw as long as Black avoids 1. c5xb6 c7-c6? 2. a5-a6!. If he plays 1... c7xb6 instead he'll eventually win White's last pawn but as White has the OPPOSITION he can hold the draw by staying two squares away from the Black King.
c) a5-a6 just leaves White two pawns down after b7xa6.
d) a5xb6 draws after c7xb6 but loses after c7-c6 when Black will win both White pawns.

5. If it's White's move Black wins, and if it's Black's move White wins! You should be able to verify this for yourself. An extreme form of ZUGZWANG - whoever moves loses - and a position well worth remembering.

1. Qe5!, FORKING c5 and g7. If 1... Qxe5, 2. Rxf8# (DECOY!). (Böök - Saila Stockholm 1946)

2. 1. Bg8!, threatening Qh7# and Rxd8: there is no way to meet both threats. White wins Rook for Bishop. (Trifunovic - Aaron Beverwijk 1962)

3. 1. Ng5!, threatening Nxe4, Nxe6 and Qxh7#. If 1... Nxg5, 2. Qg7# (DECOY!) (Reshevsky - Larsen Palma de Mallorca 1971)

4. 1. Rc8!, FORKING b8 and e8. If 1... Qxc8, the Rook on b7 is now PINNED, allowing 2. Ne7+ (FORK!), winning the Queen. (Unzicker - Sánchez Stockholm 1962)

5. 1... Rxd4! and if 2. Qxd4, 2... Qxg2#, or if 2. Qc2, 2... Rxd1+ and again the Queen cannot capture the Rook. The Queen is OVERWORKED and cannot guard either d4 or d1 as well as g2. It turns out that Rxd4 is also a SKEWER or Queen and Rook. (Saidy - Maršálek Reykjavik 1957)

6. 1... Rd1+!, forcing mate. 2. Qxd1 blocks the King's escape square, allowing 2... Qf2# and 2. Kxd1 undefends the Bishop, allowing 2... Qxf1#. Or 2. Ke2 Qf2+ 3. Kxd1 Qxf1#. (Zeek - Link Flensburg 1959)

7. 1... Qxg2+!, DECOYING the White Queen into a PIN: 2. Qxg2 Rxe2 (EXPLOITING THE PIN!) when White has nothing better than 3. Qxc6 leaving Black with an advantage of Rook and Pawn against Knight. (Kotov - Botvinnik USSR Championship 1939)

8. 1. Qxf5!, a CLEARANCE of e6 so that White can play 2. Ne6+ (FORK!). Whether or not he takes the Queen, Black will finish up a Rook behind. (Tal - Parma Bled 1961)

9. 1. Ne8!, setting up a QUEEN FORK by INTERFERENCE and also a CLEARANCE of f7. So the threats are Qxf8#, Qf6+ followed by Qg7# and Qxd8. If 1... Kg8, 2. Nxc7 is the quickest way to win. (Zilberstein - Dementiev Grozny 1968)

10. 1. Qh8!+, DECOYING the Black King into a fork: 1... Kxh8 2. Nxf7+ when White ends up a Knight and Pawn ahead. (Petrosian - Spassky World Championship Match Moscow 1966)

1. a) Na5, sacrificing a pawn but gaining time by attacking the Bishop, is the recommended movehere. Good alternatives are Nd4 and b5.

b) Nb4 does not win the pawn back after d6.
c) Nxd5 is risky because it allows the FRIED LIVER ATTACK with Nxf7. If you've analysed the variation and really think you can defend the attack award yourself a point.
d) h6 is too slow. White could continue Nxf7 (FORK!), and after Kxf7, dxc6+ (DISCOVERED CHECK!)

2. d) Nxf7 sacrifices a piece for a strong attack. A good alternative is d4.

a) Bxd5 is a poor move, exchanging Bishop for Knight for no reason.
b) Qf3 is frequently played in junior chess but runs into trouble: 6. Qf3 Qxg5 7. Bxd5 Nd4! 8. Qxf7+ Kd8 9. Be4? Be6 trapping the White Queen. (Qh5, also popular in junior chess, leads to the same thing after 6... g6 7. Qf3.)
c) 0-0 also gives Black few problems, for instance 6. 0-0 Qxg5 7. Bxd5 Bg4.

3. c) Be2 is considered the best move here: the Bishop is both safe from attack and out of the way of White's other pieces.

a) Ba4 is open to attack: 8. Ba4 h6 9. Nf3 e4 10. Ne5? Qd4 11. Bxc6+ Nxc6 12. Nxc6 Qc5 trapping the Knight.
b) Bd3 hampers White's development: Nd5, with h6 and Nf4 to follow is the best reply.
d) Bf1 will leave White a long way behind in development.

4. b) exd4 is the only good move here.

a) Nxd4 loses a pawn: 4... Nxd4? 5. Bxf7+ (DECOY - EXPLOSION ON f7!) 5... Kxf7 6. Nxe5+ (DESTROY!) 6... Ke8 7. Qxd4.
c) Nxe4 might fall into a trap: 4... Nxe4 5. dxe5 Bc5? 6. Qd5 (QUEEN FORK!).
d) d6 allows Ng5 when Black cannot defend f7: 4... d6 5. Ng5 Be6? 6. d5 (PAWN FORK!) and 5... d5 will leave him a move behind the 4. Ng5 variation.

5. b) Bxd5 is the right move, regaining one of the lost pawns: 7. Bxd5 Qxd5 8. Nc3 (FORK, EXPLOITING TWO PINS!).

a) Bb5 makes it harder for White to get his pawns back.
b) Bd3 will also leave White behind on pawns.
d) Bb3 is also no help for the same reason.

6. 1. Bxf7+! (EXPLOSION ON f7!), winning a pawn: 1... Kxf7 2. Ng5+ and 3. Qxg4. Full credit as well for Qb3, which also wins a pawn. I hope you didn't fall for 1. Ne5?, hoping for 1... Bxd1 2. Bxf7# but losing to 1... Nxe5, winning a piece.

7. 1. Bxf7+! (EXPLOSION ON f7!), winning the Queen.

(6 and 7 both come from the same variation of the Sicilian Defence: 1. e4 c5 2. d4 cxd4 3. c3 (the MORRA GAMBIT) 3... dxc3 4. Nxc3 d6 5. Bc4 and now 5. Nc6 6. Nf3 Bg4? gives position 6 and 5... Nf6? 6. e5 dxe5? gives position 7. Another line for you to try against the Sicilian Defence.)

8. Nxe5! wins a pawn: it's mate in two if Black takes the Queen. This is the original Legall's Mate: Legall - St Brie Paris 1750 went 1. e4 e5 2. Bc4 d6 3. Nf3 Bg4? 4. Nc3 g6? 5. Nxe5 Bxd1?? 6. Bxf7+ Ke7 7. Nd5#.

9. The best move is 1. Bxf7+ (EXPLOSION ON f7!) 1... Kxf7 2. Ne5+ (FORK!), winning a pawn. But second best is 1. Ne5, threatening both Bxf7# and Nxg4. Black cannot defend with 1... Bh5 because of 2. Qxh5+ Qa5+ 3. Bd2 Qxd2+ 4. Kxd2 Nxh5 5. Bxf7+ (FORK!). 1... Be6 avoids loss of material but 2. Bxe6 fxe6 gives White a clear advantage because of Black's smashed pawns. Black's best defence to Ne5 is 1... Qa5+ 2. Bd2 Qxe5+ 3. dxe5 Bxd1 4. Rxd1 with some advantage to White: he has the two Bishops and more space. An interesting position. If you saw both Bxf7+ and Ne5, congratulations.

10. Bxf7+ (EXPLOSION ON f7) is the winning move. 1. Bxf7+ Kxf7 2. Ng5+ when 2....Ke8 3. Ne6 traps the Queen, or 2... Kf8 3. Ne6+ (FORK!), or 2... Kd8 3. Qd5+ mating. Or Black can choose not to take the Bishop: 1. Bxf7+ Kf8 2. Ng5 and because the Knight on d7 is PINNED, Black has no good defence to the threat of Ne6+ (FORK!). 1. g4 looks tempting because the Knight on h5 has no safe squares to go to, but Black can escape with 1... Nb6, attacking the Bishop on c4 and the Pawn on g4.

1. Kh8!, drawing because Qxf7 is stalemate and Black has no other way to make progress.

2. Kc4 wins: 1. Kc4 a1=Q 2. Kb3 and Black can only avoid mate next move by giving up his Queen. King and Queen against King and Queen isn't always a draw!

3. Ba5! and Black is in ZUGZWANG. He has to move away allowing the Pawn to queen. Not 1. a7? Kb7 2. Bc5 Ka8 with a draw.

4. b4! is the way to win. Again bxa4 is a draw because the Black King can reach a8. After b4 the play could continue: 1. b4 Kb5 2. Bd6 (ZUGZWANG!) 2... Kc6 3. Bc5 Kb5 4. Kb2 Kc6 5. Ka3 Kb5 6. Bf8 (ZUGZWANG!) winning the a-pawn with an easy victory in sight.

5. Rxc2+! is the easy solution: 1. Rxc2+ Kxc2 2. g6 (or f7) and Black cannot stop both pawns. White will end up with Queen against Rook.

1. Nxc7+ (CLEARANCE!) 1... Nxc7 2. Rd8# (A variation from S Rubinstein - Phillips New York 1908). You should remember the mating position from Morphy against the Duke and the Count.

2. 1. Re8+ (CLEARANCE + DECOY!) 1... Kxe8 2. Qd8#, or 1... Nxe8 2. Qd8#, or 1... Qxe8 2. Bc5#. (This happened twice in the same year: R Hall - D Lamb Wolverhampton 1969 and Zhuravlev - Borinsky USSR 1969!)

3. 1. Rg8!+ Rxg8 2. Qxf6+ Rg7 3. Qxg7#, or 1... Kxg8 2. Rg2+ Kh8 3. Qxf6# or Bxf6#. (Mieses - Marshall Hanover 1902) Remember this idea: you might just meet it again sometime.

4. 1. Qe8+! Rxe8 2. fxe8+Q+ Bxe8 3. Bxd6# (DOUBLE CHECK!). (Charousek - Wollner Kassa 1893)

5. 1. Qb5+ (CLEARANCE + DECOY) 1... Nxb5 2. Nb4+ Kb6 3. Na4#. Full credit also for 1. Nb4+ Kb6 2. Qb5+! which leads to the same finish. (I Zaitsev - Storoshenko USSR 1969) Compare Question 5 in the Chapter 5 quiz. You'll see another similar finish in Chapter 16.

6. 1. b4!+ (DECOY!) 1... Bxb4 2. Bb6+! (DECOY!) 2... axb6 3. Qxa8#. (Blackburne - Amateur Kidderminster 1863) One of ten games played in a blindfold simul!

7. 1. Rxg7+ Kh8 2. Rg8+! (DOUBLE CHECK!) 2... Kxg8 3. Rg1+ Qg5 4. Rxg5#. (A variation from Hartlaub - Testa Bremen 1913. This is what would have happened if Black had accepted a Queen sacrifice.) If you remembered Question 3 you should have got this one right.

8. 1. Qxe5+! dxe5 (1... f6 2. Qxf6+! mates a move earlier) 2. Bxe5+ f6 3. Bxf6+ Rxf6 4. Rg8+ or 3... Qg7 4. Bxg7#. (This is the actual finish of Hartlaub - Testa Bremen 1913. Black declined the Queen sacrifice but a few moves later White sacrificed a Rook to reach this position.) Yet another Rook and Bishop mate! You should be getting used to them by now.

9. 1. Re8+ Nf8 2. Nh6+! (DECOY + EXPLOITING THE PIN!) 2... Qxh6 (or 2... Kh8 3. Rxf8#) 3. Rxf8+! Kxf8 4. Qd8#. (A variation from Alekhine - Frieman New York 1924) This one was from a 26-board blindfold simul!

10. 1. Nf7+ Ke8 2. Nd6+ (DOUBLE CHECK!!) 2... Kd8 (or 2... Kf8 3. Qf7#) 3. Qd8+! Rxe8 4. Nf7#. (Young - Doré Boston 1892) SMOTHERED MATE by PHILIDOR'S LEGACY. You should have remembered that one.

1. 1. Rxf6! and Black cannot take back without losing his Queen: 1... Qxf6 2. Nh5+ (FORK!) or 1... Kxf6 2. Bxg5+ (SKEWER!). Meanwhile, White's won a pawn and Black cannot defend g5. (Fischer - Gligoric Zagreb 1970)

2. 1. Rxd4! winning a Bishop. If Black takes the Rook he's mated by 1... exd4 2. Re5+ Kxg4 3. h3# or f3#. Other captures on d4 make no difference. (Petrosian - Ivkov USSR v Yugoslavia 1979)

3. 1. Rxd7 wins at once: 1... Nxd7 allows 2.Qxg7# and 1... Qxd7 allows 2. Bxf6 (EXPLOITING THE PIN!), again followed by Qxg7#. Because of the threats to f6 and g7 Black cannot save his Queen. (Romanishin - Plaskett London 1977) This was from a 30-board simul.

4. This one runs 1... Qxd4! 2. Rxd4 Rc1+ 3. Qg1 Rxg1+ 4. Kxg1 and at first it looks as if Black only has Bishop for a Rook, but then comes 4... Bc5, PINNING and winning the Rook for nothing. (Teschner - Keres West Germany v USSR 1960)

5. White's back rank is weak but 1... Qe1+ is not the answer! White can safely play 2. Qf1, a move that is very easy to overlook. No, the correct answer is 1... Rxa3!, a triple DECOY! Now we have 2. bxa3 Qxa1+ 3. Rb1 Re1+ or 2. Rxa3 Qe1+ or 2. Qxa3 Qe1+, in each case mating. White's Queen and Rook are FORKED and if 2. Qf1, 2... Rxa1 3. Qxa1 Qe1+ (Mikenas - Bronstein Tallin 1965)

6. The winning line is 1. Rxd7+ Rxd7 (or 1... Qxd7 2. Nf6+ (FORK, EXPLOITING THE PIN!).) 2. Ne7+ (DISCOVERED CHECK!) 2... Kg7 3. Qg8+ Kf6 4. Nd5#. The Knight returns to his original square. (Vinkel - N Gusev USSR 1964)

7. The killer id 1... d4. This attacks the PINNED Knight and the e-pawn cannot capture because of the PIN on the e-file. So 2. Qxd4 Qa1+ (SKEWER!) when Whites choice is unenviable. 3. Ke2 Qxh1 or 3. Nd1 Qxd4 (EXPLOITING THE PIN!) or 3. Qd1 Qxc3+. (Pirc - Stoltz Prague (Olympics) 1931)

8. This one starts with a Queen sacrifice: 1... Qxd6! 2. Qxd6 Bd4+ 3. Kh1 (or 3. Rf2 Re1# (EXPLOITING THE PIN!)) 3... Nf2+ 4. Kg1 (or 4. Rxf2 Re1+) 4... Ne4+ (DISCOVERED CHECK!) 5. Kh1 Nxd6 and Black's won a Bishop. Full marks also for 1... Bd4+ 2. Kh1 Qxd6+ which amounts to the same thing. (Brinck-Claussen - J Littlewood Varna (Olympics) 1962)

9. I trust you noticed White's in check! He played 1. Qxf4! Bxf4 2. Rxh5! gxh5 (in fact Black resigned here.) 3. Rxh5 and there's no defence to Rh8#. (Blackburne - J Schwarz Berlin 1881)

10. Another Queen sacrifice: 1. Nh6+ (EXPLOITING THE PIN!) 1... Kh8 2. Qxe5! Qxe5 3. Nxf7+ Kg8 (there's a BACK RANK MATE if he takes the Knight.) (Capablanca - Fonaroff New York 1918)

1. Certainly not Bc4 which is stalemate! A waiting move with either Bishop will mate in three, so full credit for any of Bc5, Bd6, Be7, Bf8, Be4, Bf5, Bg6 of Bh7 as long as you planned to continue with a check on the a2-g8 diagonal followed by mate on the a1-h8 diagonal. For instance: 1. Bc5 Ka2 2. Bc4+ Ka1 3. Bd4#. Full credit also for 1. Kc1 Ka2 2. Bc4+ Ka1 3. Bc3#.

2. This time there's only one way to mate in three. We need to check with the Knight next move, not on b4 allowing Ka3 but on c1. So the solution is 1. Ne2 Ka2 2. Nc1+ Ka1 3. Be5#

3. 1. Kf3 picks up the Bishop: if it goes to h2 or h4 then Rh6+ (FORK!), or if it goes to b8 then Re8+ (FORK!), or 1... Bc7 2. Re8+ Kg7 3. Re7+ (FORK!).

4. 1. Rb1 Na4 2. Rb4 traps the Knight. This was the actual conclusion of Steinitz - Neumann (we've reversed the colours for convenience: Steinitz, playing Black, had the Rook). But you also score if you selected 1. Ra1, and, after Black's King moves, Kc3, which is just as good.

5. The hardest one in this quiz. 1. Bc4! (cutting off the Rook and threatening 2. Rb8#, which is also the answer to 1... Ke8) 1... Kc8 2. Be6+ Kd8 3. Rb8+ Rc8 4. Rxc8# (Analysis by Philidor.)

1. 1. Qxe4+! wins: 1... Nxe4 2. Bxf7#. (EXPLOSION ON f7!) and 1... Ne5 is clearly hopeless. (Anderssen - Schallop Berlin 1864)

2. The winning sequence is 1. Bxf7+! Kh8 2. Qxh7+! Kxh7 3. Rh4#, a finish you should have recognised, or 1... Rxf7 2. Qxf7+ Kh8 3. Qf8+!! Rxf8 4. Rxf8#. (Silverman - Eliskases Birmingham 1937) The loser of this game became a strong Grandmaster, the winner, Julius Silverman, by contrast, became an MP and was for many years the strongest chess player in the House of Commons.

3. Another idea you've seen before: 1. Qe8+! Kxe8 2. Bb5+ (DOUBLE CHECK!) 2... Kf8 (or Kd8) 3. Re8#. Remember Réti - Tartakower? (Kaldegg - Zeissel Vienna 1903)

4. The game finished 1. Nxd7! Qxd5 2. Nf6+ (DOUBLE CHECK!) 2... Kd8 (or Kd8) 3. Bxe7#. After 1... Bxd7 White would have won with either 2. Rxe7+ or at once Qxf5 (the Bishop and Knight are both PINNED!). (Steinitz - Pilhal Vienna 1862)

5. 1... Qxe5! (DECOY! - to open the g1-a7 diagonal.) If he doesn't take the Queen he's a piece down, so 2. dxe5 Bc5+ 3. Kh2 g3+ 4. Kh3 Bc8+ 5. Qg4 Bxg4#.

6. The result of another EXPLOSION ON f7! If you worked this one out you've done well. 1. Bd6+! (CLEARANCE! - to open the f-file. Now if 1... cxd6, 2. Qf7#) 1... Kxd6 2. Qc5+ Ke6 3. d5+ Ke5 4. d6+ (DISCOVERED CHECK!) 4... Kxe4 5. Nd2#, or 4... Ke6 5. Qd5#. (Lazard - Amateur 1903)

7. We conclude with four more brilliancies by Adolf Anderssen, the nineteenth century king of the gambits. Here, another Queen sacrifice forces mate: 1... Qxf3+ 2. gxf3 (2. Kg1 Re1+) 2... Bh3+ 3. Kf2 (3. Kg1 Re1+ 4. Kf2 Bh4#) 3... Bh4+ 4. Kg1 Re1+ 5. Qf1 Rxf1#. (Riemann - Anderssen Breslau 1876)

8. The answer to this one isn't Bxd4+?, because 2. Qxd4 is check! Instead, the game finished 1... Qf1+ 2. Qxf1 Bxd4+ 3. Be3 Rxe3! and the only move to prevent 4... Re2# (DOUBLE CHECK!) is 4. Kg1 when 4... Re1 is mate (PIN!). (Rosanes - Anderssen Breslau 1863)

9. The IMMORTAL GAME! Anderssen's already sacrificed two Rooks and a Bishop for the attack and now finished with 1. Nxg7+ Kd8 2. Qf6+! (DECOY) 2... Nxf6 3. Be7#. (Anderssen - Kieseritzky London 1851) This was a friendly game, played AT but not IN the London 1851 Tournament.

10. The EVERGREEN GAME! I hope you found this brilliant finish which makes a spectacular conclusion to the book. 1. Qxd7+! (DECOY!) 1... Kxd7 (1... Kf8 2. Qxe7#) 2. Bf5+ (DOUBLE CHECK!) 2... Ke8 (2... Kc6 3. Bd7#) 3. Bd7+ Kf8 (or Kd8) 4. Bxe7#. (Anderssen - Dufresne Berlin 1852)